Among the woods of anthropic origin, those of conifers are the most represented and constitute by extension the main forest groups of the volcanic complex, especially along the southern and eastern slopes. There are recently planted pine forests mainly in the eastern area of the volcanic complex, and pine forests with a formation of trees based on conifers, but affected by intense colonization by native shrubs and trees, especially holm oak (Quercus ilex). The second type, with intermediate characteristics compared to the formation of broadleaf trees, is found essentially in the Forest Protection Reserve “Tirone Alto Vesuvio”.
The Vesuvian pinewoods mainly consist of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), domestic pine (Pinus pinea) and Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis); the mixed formations prevail over the monospecific ones, especially on the northern and southern slopes of the volcano.
Starting in the 1990s, work began on thinning out the pine forests to give way to the Mediterranean species of the area, and in particular the holm oak (Quercus ilex). Between holm oaks and pines, the lush undergrowth includes the hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), the fusaggine (Euonymus europaeus) and the smilax (Smilax aspera); Other shrubby species include lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus), myrtle (Myrtus communis), laurel (Laurus nobilis), phillyrea (Philllirea latifolia), oregano (Origanum vulgare) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis).