Evolution of the Somma-Vesuvius edifice

Vesuvius with Mount Somma at the end of the 19th century

The Gran Cono is separated from Monte Somma by the depression of the Atrium
of the Cavallo-Fossa della Vetrana, reaches a height of 1330 meters above sea
level and is almost completely filled with lava flows.

Vesuvius after the Plinian eruption of 79 A.D.

The eruption of 79 A.D. causes a new caldera collapse, which forms a wide and deep depression, then is progressively filled by the products of the subsequent effusive and explosive low energy eruptions. The morphology changes significantly and a very large area is devastated by the accumulation of eruption products.

Vesuvius after the first Plinian eruption

The Plinian eruption of the Base Pumices causes the partial emptying of the magmatic chamber and the consequent collapse of the medium-high part of the structure, which generates a large calderic depression. The landscape is completely devastated by the accumulation of thick pumice sediments and by the sliding of pyroclastic flows.

Vesuvius 22,000 years ago

A series of low energy effusive and explosive eruptions, mainly from the central volcano duct, form a tall edifice with a summit crater and scoria cones along its slopes. The edifice reaches a height of 1800 meters.